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新型冠状病毒(COVID-19):它是什么? 如何减少感染风险?

[fa icon="calendar"] Aug 13, 2020 11:00:00 AM / by Calvin Leong

Virus - White Word on Red Puzzles on White Background. 3D Illustration.

新型冠状病毒 (COVID-19) 是由新的冠状病毒引起的呼吸道感染。该病毒最初在中国湖北省被发现。 近期,世界卫生组织(WHO)已将COVID-19视为疫情。

您如何知道自己是否感染了新型冠状病毒(COVID-19)?

COVID-19的体征和症状包括发烧,干咳和疲倦。 其他症状可能包括身体疼痛和酸痛,鼻塞,流鼻涕和喉咙痛。

Indisposed woman feeling her temperature while resting on the sofa at home

新型冠状病毒(COVID-19)是如何被传播?

COVID-19新冠肺炎是通过COVID-19新冠肺炎感染者在1米(3英尺)距离内咳嗽或打喷嚏时通过飞沫传播的。当我们触摸受污染的表面或物体,然后触摸眼睛,鼻子或嘴巴,飞沫也被传播。

A sick man lying on the sofa in the living room

潜伏期的时间多长?

目前估计COVID-19的潜伏期为2至14天。

谁比较容易感染新型冠状病毒(COVID-19)?

老年人和先前患有疾病的人, 如高血压,心脏病,肺部疾病,癌症或糖尿病的风险较高,因为这些人群的免疫力较低。

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若要降低感染的风险,你该做的三见最重要的事是什么?

经常使用正确的洗手步骤,时常用肥皂和水洗手;如果您无法随时使用洗手盆,请使用消毒洗手液。实践呼吸礼节; 如果您必须咳嗽或打喷嚏,请使用纸巾,并妥善处理用过的纸巾。保持至少1米(3英尺)的社交距离。

Closeup of dentists hands using soap dispenser in clinic

如果您必须出外怎么办?

  • 时常携带手术口罩和消毒洗手液以在需要时使用。
  • 避免人群拥挤的地方与出现症状的人密切接触。
  • 避免参观动物农场和出售活体动物的市场,屠宰场的市场,并避免触摸任何动物。
  • 避免吃生肉或未煮熟的肉。
  • 如果出现症状,寻求及时的医疗。

Happy family going on holidays and getting on the airplane

为什么筛查新型冠状病毒(COVID-19)很重要?

筛查至关重要,因为筛查可以使受感染的患者避免感染他人并迅速获得所需的护理。 正确的测试也会降低感染率。 当感染者不知道自己被感染时,他们可能不会留在家里,从而冒着感染他人的风险。

筛查测试包括从喉咙中取出一个简单的拭子样品。 样品将被送到实验室进行测试,通常在一到两天后即可得到结果。

Chemist mixing green liquid in beaker with two chemists watching in the lab

参考文献:

Chan JF-W, Yuan S, Kok , K-H , et al: A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster. Lancet 2020

Fang, L., Karakiulakis, G., Roth, M. (2002) Are patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus at increased risk for COVID-19 infection?, The Lancet, 2020 March 11. (accessed on 17 March 2020) https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanres/article/PIIS2213-2600(20)30116-8/fulltext.

Infection prevention and control during health care when novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infection is suspected, Interim Guidance. WHO Jan 2020

Interim infection prevention and control recommendation for patients with confirmed 2019- Novel coronavirus or patient under investigation for COVID-19 in healthcare setting. Updated Feb 3 2020. CDC

Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, et al: Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia. N Engl J Med 2020

Song Z., Xu Y., Bao L., Zhang L., Yu P., Qu Y., Zhu H., Zhao W., Han Y., and Qin C.: From SARS to MERS, thrusting coronaviruses into the spotlight. Viruses 2019 Jan 14; undefined: pp. 11

Wu Z., and McGoogan J.M.: Characteristics of and important lessons from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in China: summary of a report of 72 314 cases from the Chinese center for disease control and prevention. J Am Med Assoc 2020 Feb 24

 

阅读有关网站以了解更多:

马来西亚COVID-19的最新统计 (Latest Statistics on COVID-19 in Malaysia)

马来西亚指定医院处理COVID-19病例 (Designated Hospitals Handling COVID-19 Cases in Malaysia)

 

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翻译者 Michelle Loh.

Topics: Wellness

Calvin Leong

Written by Calvin Leong

Calvin Leong holds a Master in Medical Education from the University of Dundee, United Kingdom. He is certified in Clinical Wound Care by the ASEAN Wound Care Association. Calvin has 20 years of clinical and lecturing experience focusing on Mentoring in Healthcare, Traumatology and Medical Sciences. Calvin is HRDC certified trainer. He is also a Life Member of The Malaysian Association for the Study of Pain (MASP) and the Malaysian Society of Wound Care Professionals (MSWCP).

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